Last Updated 5/3/12
11-12 APES Weeksheets PART 2
Color Codes
In Class
Stop! - Do not do this assignment
Holiday/No School
MLK Day - no School

New Seats

Discuss HW

Oakland Firestorm Evacuation Video
Oakland Firestorm - Claremont Canyon Video
Oakland Firestorm - From SF Video
Destructive Path of the Fire - Animation - Map
History of Diablo Wind Wildfires - Interactive
Fire Chief - 20 years later - Interview
The Oakland Hills Fire - 20 years later - Articles and Images
EBMUD Pamphlet

Oakland-Berkeley Hills Fire Article
"Firestorm: 72 Hours in Oakland" - Movie Poster
Map and Article on Oakland Fire - Sept, 2010
Rachel Katzoff at Memorial Ceremony - Picture

USGS Keeley on Wildfire Management - Link
2009 Station Fire Video (near L.A)
Station Fire Photos
Fire Ecology Research WERC Site

Review for Test

Test on Chapters 11 and 12

Copper Extraction Lab (measure out mass of copper carbonate for students before class)

Kennecott Open Pit Copper Mine - Video
Aerial Photo of Kennecott Mine
Kennecott Utah Copper Website (from Ore to More Video)
Metal in Cell Phones - Site
Minerals CNX Tutorial

If done, put together key for Land Use Planning Activity

Unit 6 - Urbanization, Environmental Health, and Toxicology (Chapters 13 and 14)

MCQ/Discuss HW

Take out lab notebooks

Announcement: Peter Smith to talk about his work on the General Plan for Oakland next Friday

Expected Yield Calculations
(practice using railroad tracks!)

Mass of filter paper = 0.75g
Monday - will mass the copper and filter paper

Kennecott Open Pit Copper Mine - Video
Aerial Photo of Kennecott Mine
Mining Truck - Image

99 tons of waste for every 1 ton of copper

Environmental impacts of mining
1. Acid Mine Drainage
2. Heavy Metal Contamination
3. Processing Chemicals Pollution
4. Erosion and Sedimentation
5. Groundwater Withdrawals
If done in country with fewer regulations - impact is deeper

Lorax and Truax

Return/Discuss Biodiversity Labs
(affect vs effect, supporting hypothesis, do not be too succinct, how is biodiversity measured?, species richness)

For Thursday: Study for Test on Chapter's 11 and 12

Meet in Ms. Lehman's room - upstairs!

Read 357-366
Understand the following:
1. What the creation of an urban growth boundary in Portland was meant to solve, and why people living outside of the UGB are not so happy with it.
2. The historical events in human history led to "the shift from country to urban center."
(3. The difference in the pace of urban growth between developed and developing nations.)
3. The rise, then flattening, and then rise again in population in Portland as illustrated in Figure 13.2.
4. What is unique about the way that cities are growing in the developing world.
5. Why people started moving to the suburbs in the 1950s.
6. What sprawl is defined as (there are two) and what the causes behind it are. (Contrast the changes in LA with the changes in Detroit, and understand what these stories illustrate).
7. How Ewing, Pendall, and Chen defined sprawl, and the criteria they used to rank sprawling cities.
8. The variables that correlated with the most and least sprawling cities (traffic, air pollution). Understand the difference between correlation and causation.
9. The effect of sprawl on transportation, pollution, health, land use, and economics.
Read pages 7-9 of the ORNL Sustainable Urban Design Paper - (PDF), and summarize the evidence that "suggest a more compact urban form...would result in the consumption of far fewer material and energy resources."

Read 366-377
Understand the following:
1. What city and regional planning are.
2. Zoning, and the arguments for and against it.
3. Even with anti-sprawl efforts in Portland, why did the urbanized area still increase after the UGB was established?
4. The concept of smart growth.
5. What Litman's rail transit study showed, and why public transit is still worth funding, despite that fact that it is not cost effective.
6. The positive and negative impacts of urbanization on the environment in regards to consumption, land use, pollution, and innovation.


Discuss HW

Measure mass of copper
Calculate yield

von Thunen's Theory of Land Use
Balancing Land Use Allocation with Transport Site
Graphs to Explain von Thunen's Theory of Land Use PDF
Johann Heinrich von Thunen Wiki
Geography of Transport Systems Site
von Thunen Models Site

Introduce Land Use Planning Activity
Landscape and key
25 Things Paper
Assignment Description
Adjust Scales
Assign groups

Begin reading
25 Things to Make an Urban Neighborhood Sustainable - PDF

Oakland General Plan and Zoning Map - PDF (if not working, will show in class)

Glaeser Interview from NYT, Feb, 2011 (The Triumph of the City)

MCQs - P.Rev.

Space Required Picture

Each person works on a preliminary map for thei general plan. (so two per group...these will be handed in with your final plan on Friday). (20 min)

Share ideas with one another (5 min)

Begin working on final plan
(20 min)

Spend the first half of class working on the Land-Use Planning Assignment

Set up Toxicity Assay Experiment
1. Title
2. Purpose
3. Notes (leave 1/2 page of space)
4. Question being investigated
5. Describe your dep/ind variables, and how they are measured
6. Describe your control and exp groups
7. Describe the variables you need to control for
8. Make a labeled diagram of the set-up
9. Make a data table to record your data (Step 10 of published procedure)

Hand in Land Use Planning Assignment

Guest Speaker Peter Smtih to Talk about his work on the General Plan of Oakland

Finish 25 Things to Make an Urban Neighborhood Sustainable - PDF

Due Friday:
1) Two preliminary plans for Moor County (one from each person in group) - these can be sketched out
2) One final general plan - this must be neatly done
3) 2 page min, 3 page max response to the following prompts:
3a) Describe and explain how your plan addresses the "five guidelines for sustainable and affordable develiopment."
3b) Identify any unresolved land use issues/problems that your plan has, and explain what they are.
(this should show a clear understanding of the impact that your design has on the environment)

Begin working on Land-Use Planning Activity essay (due Friday)


Finish working on Land-Use Planning Activity essay (due before end of day on Friday - no email)

Read 382-392
Understand the following:
1. What Guillette's hypothesis was about what was happening to the alligators in Lake Apopka, and how he tested it.
2. The concept of environmental health, as well as the different kinds of environmental hazards (be able to name an example of each).
3. What the leading causes of death around the world are.
4. The dangers of radon, lead poisoning, asbestos, and PBDEs (all of which are indoor hazards).
5. What toxicology is, and the significance of the phrase "the dose makes the poison."
6. What the 2002 USGS survey found regarding synthetic chemicals.
7. Consider Weighing the issues on page 389.
8. The different kinds of toxicants and their effects. 

9. Signs that may be the result of endocrine disruptors in the environment.
February 1

Thank you note for Mr. Smith

Kaplan misconception
"nitrogen fixation" - not the conversion of ammonia to nitrates, but of nitrogen gas to ammonia (not given as a choice)

Discuss HW

Look over prompts

Lab notes
Dose Response Assay - done to measure toxicity of a substance

EPA Toxic Substances Site

Return/Discuss Tests


Record radicle length and count the number germinated for each concentration of NaCl

Calculate class averages for radish and for lettuce
(We will analyze results from dose-response assay tomorrow)

Begin HW in class if done


Discuss HW

Discuss results

How do we graph this?
Since concentration increases/decreases exponentially, its hard to fit on a normal paper

Semi-log paper - Increase each cycle by a factor of ten. (0.0001%, 0.001%, 0.01%, 0.1%, 1%, 10%) Within each cycle, there is 1/10th of an increase.

Will have two y-axes (radicle length and % germination)

Mark TLoT on X-axis
Mark LD50 on X-axis
Title Graph

Important references on dose response curve
1. Threshold level of toxicity - dose below which there are no adverse effects from exposure to the chemical
2. LD50 - dose at which 50% of the organisms being tested dies (done to compare the strength of one toxin to another)

mg/kg = mg/L = 1 ppm

microg/kg = 1 ppb

LD50 Site
Median Lethal Dose Wiki
Drinking Water Contaminants Site 
ppm Site
ppm Site2

Dose/Response Relationships Tutorial Site
Goodbye to LD50? (Scientist Article, 2008) - Site

Analysis Questions (from Molnar workbook) to be answered in Lab Notebook
1. a. What is meant by the term threshold of toxicity?
b. On your graph of percent germination vs. solution strength, label the Threshold of Toxicity.
2. a. What is meant by LD-50?
b. Label LD-50 on your graph of percent germination vs. solution strength.

Last 20 Minutes (take notes)

Poisoned Waters - Frontline Special
"The Startling New Contaminants", "What we Dont't Know" Puget Sound - Hot spot for PCBs"

Sample MCQ

Discuss HW

Policies dealing with Toxins (FIFRA, TSCA, REACH) - Book Interpretation vs EPA Printouts

FIFRA - Originally to confirm efficacy of pesticides, now risk assessment, but economic considerations taken into account
TSCA - Screens and regulates industrial chemicals, but must be proof of toxicity before meaningful testing done
REACH (Europe) - shifts burden of proof for testing chemical safety from gov to industry, applies to already released substances, volume a consideration (related - EU provides financial incentives for innovating "new" (safer?) chemicals)

Goodbye to LD50? (Scientist Article, 2008) - Site

Risk Perception, Risk Reality Activity

RP, RR Activity

Video - topics that come up: endocrine disruption, synergism, question of philosophical/policy approaches, bioaccumulation and biomagnification, global distillation


Read 392-402
Understand the following:
1. What Bisphenol-A is used for, and what led Dr. Hunt to investigate the effects of BPA on lab mice. What she discovered in the investigation that followed.
2. The routes that synthetic chemicals can take through the environment.
3. The concept of pesticide drift.
4. How global distillation works (see Figure 14.12).
5. What bioaccumulation and biomagnification are.
6. How wildlife studies can point to likely toxicants (otter example). When have we talked about this before?
7. What an epidemiological study is, and what the pros and cons are.
8. What Elizabeth Guillette studied in the Yaqui Valley in Mexico, what her results showed, and what the critics of her study claimed.
9. The pros and cons of manipulative experiments in toxicology.
10. How a dose-response experiment works, and what the terms LD50, ED50, and threshold mean.
11. What scientists do once they get this dose-response curve.
12. The difference between acute and chronic exposure.
13. The concept of synergistic effects, and the examples given.


Read 402-407
Understand the following:
1. How risk is expressed.
2. Why there is a difference between the perception and reality of risk.
3. The concepts risk assessment and risk management.

4. The two approaches for determining safety.
5. Examples of how the two approaches are manifested in a country's policies.
6. The role that the EPA plays in regulating toxic substances, and what FIFRA and TSCA do.
7. What approach to determining safety the TSCA demonstrates, and how it does so.
8. What the Stockholm Convention on POPs did.
9. What REACH aims to do for the EU.
Read 412-418
Understand the following:
1. The events that have led to the shrinking of the Colorado river, and how changes in urban populations have affected policies that govern the distribution of water from the river.
2. How much freshwater is available on Earth, and of that, what portion is frozen, underground, or on the surface
3. What floodplains are and why they are so fertile.
4. What wetlands are, why they are significant on their own (intrinsically and instrumentally), and how humans have altered them (where has this occurred in CA?).
5. Be able to identify the differrent zones of a lake, and the factors that are characteristic of each.
6 . The difference between oligotrophic and eutrophic lakes.
7. What an aquifer, zone of aeration and zone of saturation, water table, as well as what confined and unconfined aquifers are, and be able to identify them in a diagram.
8. How location and climate play into the distribution and availability of water on Earth.


Unit 7 - Water Resources and Water Use (Chapters 15 and 16)

Discuss HW

Rivercutters - to illustrate how water can impact landscapes

Meandering Oxbow Animation
Streams and Floods Animations
Mokulumne Watershed - Handout
Oakland/Berkely Watershed Finder Site
Friends of Sausal Creek Site
Lake Zones Site

USGS - Groundwater Site
Confined and Unconfined Aquifers
Geyser Eruption Animation

CA Coastal Basin Aquifer Map

Water Use in the US - USGS Site
Ground water use - irrigation
Surface water use - thermoelectric

Return work - HW quizzes, Land-use Planning, Biodiversity

Review for Test

Test on Chapters 13 and 14

MCQ and Discuss HW

EBMUD, the 2040 Water Supply Management Plan, and the Politics of Water in CA (20 min)

Announce Plan for Next Thursday (Sausal Creek) - Water Quality Factors
1. Physical Characteristics and Stream Habitat (3)
2. Temperature and DO (2)
3. pH (2)
4. Turbidity (2)
5. Nitrate (2)
6. Phosphate (2)
7. Alkalinity (2) - Site
8. Biological Characteristics - Site (3)

Practice your test, identifying physical characteristics, or biological characeristics

Hetch Hetchy
The Hetch Hetchy Dam Controversy Site (Muir vs Pinchot)
Hetch Hetchy Before Picture
Hetch Hetchy Before Picture2
Hetch Hetchy After Picture
Hetch Hetchy Quotes

3 Gorges Dam NASA Movie
Dam Animation
Problem with Razing Dams Article

LA Acqueduct
Mulholland Article
St. Francis Dam - Before and After - Pictures
California Water Wars Wiki
Department of Water and Power Site on the LA Acqueduct
Owen's Dry Lake Article
Owens Valley Rewatering Program Article

If time...

Aral Sea

Aral Sea NASA Movie
Aral Sea Animation

Sinkholes Site
Got Sinkhole? Picture Animation
EarthTech Animation

Peter Gleick - Pacific Institute Interview 2010


Run scantrons, grade FRQs

MCQ and Discuss HW

Desalination USGS Site
Desalination Animation

Groundwater Contamination Site
Water Quality - Pollution Sources and Impacts Tutorial
Point Source Pollution SAG Curve Animation

EBMUD - Supply
Daily Water Report
EBMUD's Water Supply Management Program Site

Treatment of Drinking Water
Water Treatment Steps for Drinking Site
Treatment of Drinking Water Tutorial
From Reservoir to Tap Animation

Treatment of Waste Water
Wastewater Treatment Tutorial

1. Screening & Grit Removal
2. Primary Sedimentation (oils, greases, solids removed)
3. Secondary Treatment (biological to consume sugars, fats, proteins, aerated to encourage bacterial growth)
4. Disinfection (sodium hypochlorite (bleach), sodium bisulfite)

EBMUD Tour Site
Arcata Waste Water Treatment Plant Site

Water Quality
Stream Monitoring Tutorial
Invertebrates as Indicators EPA Site

Sausal Creek Watershed

Sounds of Sausal Creek - Audio

Sausal Creek Watershed History
Watershed Map
Channelizing Creek SIte
Culverts Good and Bad Image
Prioities for a Healthy Watershed Site

Study for Test on Chapters 13 and 14

Read pages 418-427
Understand the following:
1. The three types of water use, and what consumptive and non-consumptive water use are.
2. The benefits and costs of dams.
3. FERC's role in the dismantling of dams.
4. Why people have settled around floodplains, and how they try to deal with the floods.
5. How diversions can impact bodies of freshwater if not used wisely.
6. What "flood and furrow" irrigation is, and the problems with it.
7. The problems that arise from pumping out too much groundwater.
8. How water can be a source of regional conflict.

Read 427-435
Understand the following:
1. Potential solutions to to address the issue of freshwater supply and freshwater demand, and (when appropriate) some the drawbacks to these solutions.
2. The different types of water pollution, the problems that arise from them, and ways to reduce them.
3. The difference between point and non-point source pollution, and which one is the bigger problem today.
4. The issue with groundwater pollution (as compared to surface water pollution).
5. The different hypotheses for why arsenic levels are so high in Bangladesh, and what it illustrates.
6. The kinds of groundwater pollution introduced by human activity.
7. What the Clean Water Act does.
8. Why "an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure" is pertinent to preventing water pollution.

1) Read 435-439
Understand the following:
1. How the treatment of waste in a septic system differs from that of a municipal sewar system.
2. How the artifical wetlands in Arcata work to treat the wastewater.

2) Calculate/Answer IGD1-3 from pages 440-441 (watch the units...)

3) Calculate how much water you use when you take a shower (check your shower head for the rate (L/min), and time how long you shower for - be honest!), and how much water you use when you flush the toilet (ideally in L/flush, and multiply by how many times you go to the bathroom - be honest!) If you are like an average American who uses around 379 L of water each day (according to this USGS site), what percentage of your daily water usage is from showering? From going to the bathroom? Total?


Discuss HW

Treatment of Drinking Water
Water Treatment Steps for Drinking Site
Treatment of Drinking Water Tutorial
From Reservoir to Tap Animation

Treatment of Waste Water
Wastewater Treatment Tutorial

1. Screening & Grit Removal
2. Primary Sedimentation (oils, greases, solids removed)
3. Secondary Treatment (biological to consume sugars, fats, proteins, aerated to encourage bacterial growth)
4. Disinfection (sodium hypochlorite (bleach), sodium bisulfite)

EBMUD Tour Site
Arcata Waste Water Treatment Plant Site

Sausal Creek Preparation - Notes

Physical Characteristics and Stream Habitat Assessment (3)
Temperature and DO (2)
pH (2)
Turbidity (2)
Nitrate (2)
Phosphate (2)
Alkalinity (2) - Site
Biological Characteristics - Site (3)

Re-familiarize self with protocol and materials for chemical test kits

If assigned physical or biological characteristics of stream, use these sites to prepare selves: Let's Take a Stream Tour

Finish notes for Sausal Creek
(Emily and Laura - Turbidity Testing)

Discuss HW

Field Trip Introduction
Pescadero Marsh
Satellite View
Seqouia Audobon Trail

Marsh Species
Blue Heron - Image
Steelhead Trout - Image
Tidewater Goby - Image
CA Red Legged Frog - Image
San Francisco Garter Snake - Image
Brackish Water Snail - Image
Talking Tree - Image

North Pescadero Beach - Sand Crab Monitoring
Pacific Mole Crab - Image
Limpets Monitoring Sites - Site

Sausal Creek Field Trip

Goal: Return safely, and with physical characteristic scores and chemical test results from two different sites, and a %EPT value from one of the sites

Landscape of Oakland - hills and flats
Development - increased stream flow
Increased stream flow - increased erosion
Hills worry integrity of land
Flats worry about floods (Video)
Flood Insurance Map

Benefits of daylighting the creek (and removing the culvert):
1. sunlight hits it, more plants, more photosynthesis, and better conditions for living things (organic matter for food, and more DO)
2. removing the culvert (and letting the creek meander) decreases the velocity of the water (which if high, can scour streambed, deepen the channel, and cause erosion) and reduce flooding downstream. Fish benefit because easier to travel upstream with fewer barriers & a lower velocity of water, and fish eggs are not covered by sediment. People living downstream benefit because fewer floods.

Results from FOSC study

Brief Notes on Sausal Creek
Erosion and floods

Hand in Watershed assessment

February 27th Logistics

Depart from US Lot at 8:10 AM
Arrive around 9:10-9:15
Prepare for Monitoring until 10:00
10 AM - Low tide starts, monitoring begins
Marsh Hike, Visit Talking Tree
Depart around 2:15
Return to HRS at 3:20


Activity to get practice measuring carapace lengths and identifying gender of mole crabs

Read "The Sandy Beach Habitat: Fact Sheet" (which you can download as a PDF from this site)
Understand the following:
1. How does the beach change in appearance during the winter and spring, and what causes it?
2. From where does sand come?
3. How do many sandy beach organisms avoid being swept away by the waves?
4. What is the swash zone, and how do most of the animals that live there get food?
5. How does the mole crab feed?
6. In what major ways have humans impacted the beaches?

If necessary - recalculate water usage from last Friday using following data (Toilet = 6 L/flush, Shower = 9.46 L/min)

Perform the task/answer the 3 questions on the Mole Crab Coloring Page (check email)
Use the "The Pacific Mole Crab: Fact Sheet" as a reference (which you can download as a PDF from this site)

Due Friday:(items 1-7 should be complete by the end of the day)
Writen in your lab notebooks
1. Title: Watershed Health Assessment
2. Location and Date: Sausal Creek, 2/16/12
3. Temperature, Weather: (Specific temperature, general description of weather)
4. Sites: (name the two locations)
5. Map: (Sketch a map of where the two sites are in relation to one another, and label roads or any strucutres for reference)
6. Data collected: (This should include the scores for the different physical characteristics, the results from everyone's chemical tests, and the results from the EPT index from both sites)
7. Notes: (Any other notes taken on the field trip)
8. An assessment of the oveall health of the Sausal Creek watershed. It should include a) a brief statement of the overall health of the watershed (1-2 sentences), b) a description of the signs and measurements that indicate good health (pull from the physical, chemical, and biological) (3 sentences min), c) a description of the signs and measurements that give you cause for concern (things that score a 3 or below on physical, are not within a tolerable range for chemical, low EPT index) (3 sentences min), and d) suggestions for what should be done to improve the health of the watershed, and how they will address the areas of concern for part c.

This assesment should be brief (1 page minimum, 1.5 pages maximum). 
"An Intriguing Mystery in Pescadero Marsh" Article
Understand the answers to the following:
1. What impact does the formation of the sand bar have on the salinity and turbulence of the marsh? When does it happen and why?
2. What opens the sand bar? When does it happen and why?
3. What is the theory behind why so many steelhead trout are dying when the sand bar opens?
4. What events have contributed to increased sediment levels in the marsh, and how are these increased levels related to the steelhead die offs?

Begin Chapter 16
Read 443-449
Understand the following:
1. The sad story of the Atlantic cod, and the attempts made to let the population recover.
2. Know the locations of each major oceans labeled in Firgure 16.2.
3. How certain factors can cause the salinity of ocean water to vary, and the source of oxygen that is dissolved in the oceans.
4. How salinity and temperature can impact the density of water, and what the pycnocline is.
5. How the heat capacity of water impacts climate (think coastal vs inland temperatures).
6. The directions of the surface currents on earth in the Northern and Southern hemispheres.
7. How upwellings and downwellings happen, and what they do.
8. What continental shelves are and what bathymetry is.
9. What photic, pelagic, and benthic zones are. 

Read 449-457
Understand the following:
1. The role of kelp in its ecosystem, and how sea otters impact the health of kelp forests.
2. The role that coral plays in its ecosystem, and how the health of the coral reef ecosystem is being threatened.
3. What an intertidal ecosystem is, and why it is such a tough place to make a living.
4. Why salt marshes, mangroves, and estuaries are important, and what common danger they face.
5. How humans use the ocean, and the impacts that result from overusing these resources.
6. Know what an algal bloom and red-tide are.


President's Week Vacation - Februrary 21st-25th
March 1
2011 - Field Trip to Pescadero Beach for Sand Crab Monitoring

Depart from Upper School Lot in Vans at 8:00 AM
Return at 3:20 PM

Study Hall to make up work because of field trip

Spend 10 minutes on remainder of FRQ
Pass out rubric - assess your responses

Things I learned about FRQs at Prof Devel Workshop
1) 11 pts
2) letters help reader

Test on Chapters 15 and 16 on ???
Test Discussion - Tues (Mr. V's preference) or Thursday

Input LIMPETS Data

Discuss Worksheet from trip
ENSO Animation
ENSO Animation2

Argo Site
Images Showing Depth and Latitude Differences for

What impacts vertical movement of water? (Density, which is determined by salinity and temperature of the water)
What impacts horizontal movement of water? (wind - the result of differential heating of the earth, curvature of the earth, and its rotation)

Physical Factors
Density, Salinity, and Temperature

Preview of Ch 18
(Salinity, Temperature, and Deep Ocean Currents Activity
NADW Current Animation
Salinity Measurements Animation)

Thermohaline Circulation Explained
Thermohaline Circulation Animation

Ocean Surface Currents Animation

MidLatitude Productivity Animation

Coastal Upwelling Animation

Bathymetry Animations

Oceans Animations
Estuary Animation
Ocean System Animations

NOAA Data in the Classroom Activities

Test on Chapters 15 and 16 on Thursday, March 8th, first half of class

NADW Review

Land Temp vs Water Temp

Discuss Remainder of Chapter 16 HWs
The Cove - Trailer

Read 457-467
Understand the following:
1. The methods used today by the modern fishing industry, and their impact on ocean ecosystems.
2. What by-catch are.
3. Why the the global catch has remained relatively stable, despite population crashes in some parts.
4. What Watson and Pauly discovered was "fishy" about the fishery data from China, and why it was a concern. (Science Behind the Story is on 464 - book mistakenly says 463)
5. What fishing down the food chain means.
6. How biodiversity loss can erode ecosystem services.
7. Maximum sustainable yield as it relates to fishing, and how it compares to ecosystem based management as a management approach.
8. Marine protected areas, why it may be a misnomer, and the idea behind marine reserves.
9. What Roberts found in his study on marine reserves.
10. What Figure 16.26 is communicating about the size of marine reserves.
Do FRQ handed out in class
Do as if it was on the exam (no book, no more than 23 minutes spent on it)
It will only be graded for completion and effort put into it
  Read 473-479
Understand the following:
1. The composition of Earth's atmosphere, as well as the difference between permanent and variable gases. (atmosphere Wiki)
2. The factors scientists use to distinguish the different layers of the atmosphere, what those layers are, and some characteristics of each (note the role of the ozone layer and its location). (atmosphere Interactive)
Mesosphere, Stratosphere, and Thermosphere Image from APOD)
3. What atmospheric pressure is, and how that changes with altitude. (PG atmospheric pressure Site)
4. What relative humidity is, and the difference between low and high humidity. (PG humidity Site)
5. How the curvature of the Earth affects how it is heated by the sun, and why we have seasons.
(Season's Applet)
(Season's Animation)
(Season's Animation2
(this is a good one))
6. What convective circulation is.
7. The difference between weather and climate.
(Climate and Weather Animations)
8. What warm and cold fronts are, and how they work.
(warm and cold front animation)
9. What high and low pressure systems are.
10. How a thermal inversion happens.

(Thermal Inversion Site)
(Thermal Inversion in LA Explanation
Read 479-486
Understand the following:
1. What Hadley cells are, how they work, and how they contribute to dryness in some areas and precipication in others (and thus, helps to explain the location of the biomes).

2. How the Earth's rotation impacts the direction of global wind patterns.
(Hadley Cell Animation1 - shows over course of a year)
(Hadley Cell Animation2 - shows trade winds and westerlies)

Coriolis Animation)
3. The natural sources of air pollution, and how they pollute.
Aerosols Site (Earth Observatory))
(What are Aerosols - NASA Site)

4. The difference between primary and secondary pollutants.
5. What the Clean Air Acts of 1970 and 1990 did, and what new powers the EPA had as a result of the second act. (CAA Wiki)
6. How each of the 6 criteria pollutants form, what problems they can cause, and what NAAQS are. (Note Figure 17.11 to see where NAAQS are not met)
(6 Common Air Pollutants Site (EPA)
Carbon Monoxide Trends
Ozone Trends
Lead Trends
NO2 Trends
PM2.5 Trends
SO2 Trends
7. What VOC's are, and why it is important to monitor levels of this pollutant.
8. How effective the Clean Air Act has been in reducing air pollution, and the reasons for their decline.
9. How a wet scrubber works.
10. What the 1990 Clean Air Act added to their list of pollutants.
11. What new source review is, and what the EPA attempted to do under the Bush administration.  

Land Temp vs Water Temp (Revisited)

Finish going over last HW form Ch16

MidLatitude Productivity Animation

Unit 8 - Atmospheric Science, Air Pollution, and Global Climate Change

Discuss first reading assignment from Chapter 17
(see in-class Thurs, March 1st)

Mesosphere, Stratosphere, and Thermosphere Image from APOD

Sunlight, Globe, and Seasons
Origami Earth
Season's Applet
Season's Animation
Season's Animation2
MidLatitude Productivity Animation

High and Low Pressure Systems - Site

Convective Circulation and Thermal Inversion Demo
Thermal Inversion Site
Thermal Inversion in LA Explanation
Temperature Inversion Video
Thermal Inversion Demo Video

Stratospheric ozone
Ozone and Altitude Image

Cloud formation demo

Read S1 to the top of S4 for the following PDF (ignore the Discussion questions at the end of the PDF)
Answer the following Pre-Lab Questions:
1. How do sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides give rise to acid rain (H3O+)? What types of natural events and human activities create NOx and SOx?
2. What happens to unpolluted rain water as it falls through the atmosphere? Write out the chemical equation to help explain. As a result, what impact does it have on the pH of rainwater? What may happen to the pH of unpolluted rain if carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere continue to increase?
3. What impact does acid rain have on the surfaces of the plant, and on the soils? Explain.
4. What happens to calcium carbonate when exposed to acid rain, followed by unpolluted rain? Write out the equation to help explain. What substances have CaCO3 in them?
5. What impact does acid rain have on surface water?
6. How is acid rain related to the low oxygen levels in Chesapeake Bay (in MD)?
7. What impact does acid rain have on human health?
8. Why is the deposition of acid rain not necessarily in the same place as the cause behind it?
9. Certain surface waters possess the ability to neutalize acid deposition. What substances enable them to do so, and how is the type of bedrock that lies beneath the soils and streams related to it? Write out the chemical reaction for one of the substances to show how the acid is neutralized. (understand what is meant by an ANC value as well)

Test on Chapters 15 and 16

Discuss Pre-Lab Questions

Introduce Acid Deposition Lab
4 stations (one for each Activity)
Split up into 8 groups (6 groups of 2, 2 groups of 3)
Rotate through stations
**Activity 4 (2 groups work together on - short on materials)

Complete Activities 1-3 of lab and Set-up 4
1. pH of unpolluted rain
2. pH of acid rain
3. Effects of acid rain on human-made structures (chalk vs zinc)
4. The effect of bedrock (granite, basalt, marble) on acid rain

What did Activities 1-3 demonstrate, and how are they relevant to what happens in the real world?
(Acid Rain's effect on Stone statue Image)

Activity 4
Discuss Set-up and Concepts
Predict: What should we expect to see?
Tomorrow: Record Results
Discuss on Monday

Recall Alkalinity (a measure of a water's buffering capacity, the lab calls it acid neutralizing capacity (ANC))
Recall results from Sausal Creek 2011 (75 ppm, which was below the optimum of 100-200 ppm)
Make connection between that and Activity 4

Discuss Results to Activities 1, 2, and 3

Make Prediction for Activity 4

Record Activity 4 Results

Discuss Ch 17 HWs

486-491 (Finish the "Science Behind the Story," but stop at "Acidic deposition...")
Understand the following
1. What industrial smog is, and how it is formed (see Figure 17.15a).
2. What happened in Donora, PA.
3. What photochemical smog is, and how it is formed (see Figure 17.16a).
4. Why industrializing nations have bigger air pollution problems than nations that are not in this phase of development.
5. The location of the ozone layer, the service it provides to life on earth, what CFCs were doing to ozone chemically, and the potential consequences of the thinning of the ozone layer (see the Science Behind the Story as well).
Ozone Wiki)
(NCAR Ozone Site
6. What the 1987 Montreal Protocol got nations to do, and why scientists beleive it was a success.
7. Why CFC's are still a concern, and why the text brings up the precautionary principle.

Study for Test on Ch 15 and 16

Finish Pre-lab assignment (see Tuesday, In-Class)

Review Ch 17 HWs - mark items you have questions about

To be handed in on Monday with your Pre-Lab questions and Data:
Answer the following Post-Lab questions (most from Carolina Biological):
1. In Activity 1, how did breathing into the tap water cause the solution to become acidic? What does exhaling into the water simulate from the environment?
2. In Activity 2, the burning match releases sulfur dioxide gas. How does this stimulate pollution that occurs in the environment? Why did the pH of the indicator solution change as the match burned?
3. In Activity 3, chalk and zinc are used to simulate manmade structures. Based on your observations, explain the effects that acid rain has on these types of structures.
4. What did you expect to see in Activity 4? What did our results show? If you were to set this up again, how might you do so, so that it would illustrate the concept that it was intending to? (think back to the soil lab)
5. Look at the maps showing Bedrock and Precipitation pH. (PDF) Where in CA would the you expect the surface waters have the lowest ANC? Why? Where in the US would the pH of the surface waters be the lowest? Why?
6. Read the first 2 paragraphs under the "Solutions" heading on page S-4 of the PDF from Tues In-Class. a) Describe what Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendment aimed to accomplish. b) Explain how the Allowance Trading System worked to accomplish the Title IV goal. c) Describe the result of this trading system.

Read 490-495 (Finish the "Science Behind the Story," but stop at "Indoor Air Pollution.")
Understand the following:
1. What acidic deposition is, how it forms, and what sorts of problems it causes?
2. What Likens and Bormann discovered in the late 1960s, and what program arose in response to these results.
3. What scientists hypothesized was responsible for the low pH levels in the Northeast.
4. What impact the Clean Air Act of 1970 has had on the levels of acidic deposition in Hubbard Brook.
5. What impact the acid rain has had on the Hubbard Brook ecosystem.
6. What is being done to remedy this impact.


Discuss/Hand in Lab

"As the World Burns" - New Yorker Article, October, 2010 (the story behind the Kerry-Lieberman-Graham climate bill)

Discuss Remainder of Ch 17 HWs assigned last week

Directional component to warm and cold fronts

High and Low Pressure Systems - Site

Convective Circulation and Thermal Inversion Demo
Thermal Inversion Site
Thermal Inversion in LA Explanation
Temperature Inversion Video
Thermal Inversion Demo Video

Stratospheric ozone
Ozone and Altitude Image

Cloud formation demo

Hadley Cell Animation1 (shows over course of a year)
Hadley Cell Animation2 (shows trade winds and westerlies)
Global Circulation of Atmosphere Site

Weather vs Climate (atmospheric conditions
over short vs long time periods)

1. Warm parcels of air are less dense than cold parcels of air
2. Therefore, warm parcels are associated with L pressure, cold parcels associated with H pressure
3. As warm parcel rises from surface of earth, it cools, and water vapor in parcel of air condenses (cloud formation demo) - condensation nuclei
4. H->L movement of air
5. Water has higher specific heat than land (so, heats up and cools down more slowly - which impacts temperature of air above it)

Weather patterns
1. Clear skies, high pressure, cloudy skies, low pressure relationsihp
2. Wind at the beach - daytime, nighttime
3. Cold and warm fronts

Patterns on earth resulting from Hadley cells
1. H and L pressure systems at different latitudes
2. Rain near equator
3. Deserts at 30 degrees - map
Hadley Cell
Precipitation Patterns Site (with seasonal change)

Patterns on earth resulting from Coriolis effect
Paper Spinning Activity - N to S winds, S to N winds

Map1 of Global Wind Patterns
Map2 of Global Wind Patterns
Hadley Cell
Animation2 (shows trade winds and westerlies)
Coriolis Animation2 (N pole to equator, S pole to equator)
Mr. Aubrey Coriolis
Coriolis BBC Movie

Surface Ocean Currents
NOAA Ocean Currents Movie

Pollutants Handout

Technologies Handout
Catalytic converters (reduce CO emissions)
Scrubbers (reduce PM and SO2 emissions)

Catalytic Converter Animation (discussed on page 672 of book)
Catalytic Converter Animation

Site (Earth Observatory))

(What are Aerosols - NASA Site

Clean Air Acts (1970, 1990 - emmisions trading introduced for SO2) (CAA Wiki)

6 Common Air Pollutants Site (EPA)
Carbon Monoxide
Ozone Trends
Lead Trends
NO2 Trends
PM2.5 Trends
SO2 Trends

NAAQS EPA Site (levels for each pollutant)
BAAQMD Standards Site
Spare the Air Day Site
Real Time AQ Data - BAAQMD Site
Air Quality Index Site (color scale)

Sulfur Production and Emissions Site
Combustion of Coal Chemistry
Coal Wiki

Nitrogen Oxide Emissions Site

Ozone - Good up high, Bad nearby

Ozone and Altitude Image
Ozone destruction by CFC Image and Animation (scroll down)
Ozone Wiki
NCAR Ozone Site
Ozone Hole Watch - NASA Site
Why Antarctica?
1. Global distillation
2. Cold temperatures - condensation - PSC formation in ozone region
3. Vortex isolates poles
4. ClO (chlorine monoxide) formation initiated on surface of PSC's (HNO3 in PSC particles, but when warm, ClONO2 and HCl)

Tropospheric ozone (Nearby)
Chemistry (O3)
Ozone Damage to Vegetation
Ozone Damage to Lungs Image
Ozone Monitoring in National Parks Site
Ground Level Ozone Site
High Level Ozone
Ozone - Chemical of the Week
More Chemistry
Why VOC's make Ozone levels worse
Ozone and VOCs
Smog City Animation

Groups of 3 to 4 share experiments
Come to consensus (5 min)
Plan locations - weather permitting, place and record location and time for Mr. Vann (10 min max)
Hand in groups experimental designs, with one you go with on top (add modifications as necessary)

Smog City Activity

Finish Smog/Ozone HW from Ch 17

Air Pollution - Last day

Set up the ozone experiment next week

Discuss HW

10 microns or lower - can enter lungs
PM Image (Scale)
PM Wiki (Showing Alveoli and Non-Attainment)

Aerosols Site (Earth Observatory)

Finish Acid Rain, Indoor Air Polution HW form Ch 17.

Air Pollution Town Hall Case Study
Encyclopedia of Earth Site

6. Times (set-up and take-down) and locations
7. Humidity (check Weather Underground Site)

10. How did the results compare to your prediction? (How did the results compare to what the EPA states is the limit of exposure (1ppm = 1000 ppb))? Were they what you expected? Explain.
11. Describe the most likely source of error in your study, and how you could correct it.

Read Ozone Strips
Determine ppb ozone
Compare to EPA exposure level
Complete Write-up
Set-up (if you did not yesterday), retrieve at end of day, and add to HW

Science Magazine Response to East Anglia Controversey Site 

Earth's Energy Budget Animation

NOAA Env Visualization Site

Read 494-500 (Including Science Behind the Story) and understand the following:
1. The impact that acid rain has had on the Hubbard Brook ecosystem.
2. What is being done to remedy this impact.

3. Why the health effects of indoor air pollution are greater than outdoor air pollution.
4. How much time (on average) people spend indoors, what the source of many of these indoor air pollutants are, and how the energy crisis of contributed to indoor air pollution.
5. Why the developing world is most impacted by indoor air pollution, and what the most significant indoor health risks are in the developing and developed world.
6. What the source of radon gas is, and the health problems that result from its exposure.
7. Look over Figure 17.23. Consider places in your home that might be a source of indoor air pollutants.
8. What sick building syndrome is, and how sick buildings can potentially foster bacteria.
9. How you can ensure that you minimize exposure to indoor pollutants at home.

1) Read this site for a brief review of how tropospheric ozone forms - Chemi cal of the Week - Ozone (read no further than "...deteriorate prematurely.") AND, jot down the chemical reactions that leads to the formation of tropospheric ozone. (10 minutes)
2) Do an internet search for the different sources of indoor and outdoor ozone (5 minutes)
3) Then, design an investigation (in your lab notebook) that we can do with the ozone test strips that we have using the following format: (20 minutes)
1. What is the question that you are planning to investigate?
2. What are your independent and dependent variables? If relevant, what units are associated with them (m, ppb, g?)
3. What variables will you keep constant to make this a controlled experiment? Describe how you will ensure this.
4. What is your hypothesis?
5. Explain your rationale for your hypothesis (based on your research above), and write down the website.

Though you may be using somone elses idea tomorrow, I will be asking you to hand these in anyway


Read the following PDF and understand the following questions:
1. Based on what you have read about agriculture and its connection to particulates, why is the industrilization of agriculture of particular concern?
2. What are the top three anthropogenic sources of particulate matter? Name some examples of each.
3. What is the fate of particles larger than 5 micrometers when inhaled? 0.5 to 5 micrometers? Under 0.5 micrometers?
4. Check out the CA AQI Now Map (Using combined PM2.5 and O3). Based on the reading from the PDF and what you know of CA climate and geography, speculate as to why the air quality is bad in the locations that are highlighted.

Due Monday
Read 505-511
Understand the following:
1. What climate is, and how it differs from weather.
2. What global climate change and global warming are.
3. What three factors influence earth's climate the most. How these 3 factors play a role as illustrated in Figure 18.1.
4. Which greenhouse gases absorb and emit the most energy, and why CO2 is still the GHG of greatest concern.
5. Why water vapor, which is the most abundant greenhouse gas, is not so much of a concern.
6. What aerosols are, how they impact climate change, and what sorts of natural events release them.
7. What radiative forcings and albedo are.
8. What the three types of Milankovitch cycles are (see Figure 18.5), and how they can impact climate.
9. How CO2 absoprtion affects climate, and why it cannot be seen as a solution to removing CO2 from the atmosphere.
10. How the ENSO works (during normal and El Nino conditions), and how it impacts climate on either side of the Pacific.
ENSO Animation, ENSO Animation2
11. Know what thermohaline circulation is refering to (think thermo and haline), how it impacts climate, and the concern over the melting of the Greenland's ice sheet.


Return/Discuss Acid Deposition Labs

Missing Work

Discuss HW

"Climate is what you expect, weather is what you get" - Robert Heinlein

Natural Variation
Milankovitch Cycles Animation (100K - circ-ellip, 40K - 22-25 deg, 25K - wobble)
ENSO Animation
NOAA ENSO Animations

Thermohaline Circulation Image

Light fundamentals - handout
Electromagnetic Spectrum Image
Light Emission, and the 3 Fates (Transmission, Reflection, and Absorption (Resonance and Re-Emission))
Tuning Forks

(cont'd tomorrow)

Return/Discuss Ch 15/16 Test

Earth With No Atmosphere - pHET Simulation
Black Body Radiation from the Sun and Earth - Image
Composition of Earth's Atmosphere - Site
Absorption of Visible and Infrared Photons by Different Gases - pHET Simulation
Radiation transmitted by the atmosphere - Image
Radiation (in and out) and absorption by CO2, O2+O3, Total - Image

Test next week on Friday, April 1st on Chapters 17 and 18

Connection to bottle demo

Introduce Heat-Trappers


Introduce Heat Trappers
Earth with no panes vs one pane pHET Simulation

1. Write the title: Heat-Trappers Lab, on a new page in your lab notebook.
2. Draw one set of termperature vs time axes (make them large - at least half the page in size!), and title it Temperature vs Time.
3. Predict: Draw a temperature vs time graph for
a) Absorptive exterior
b) Absoptive interior with transparency
c) Reflective exterior
d) Reflective interior with transparency
e) Open box with no transparency
if the box is inside for 3 minutes, then out in the sun for the next 20
4. Make a labeled diagram
5. Create a data table to record the time (min) and temperature (degrees C) for your box.

1. for the transparency boxes, place cardboard cover securely on thermometer bulb
2. seal the box with masking tape,
3. record the temperature of the air inside your box as your t=0 min reading,
4. record the temperature of the box inside the room for up to 3 min, and then move the box outside into the sun for the next 20 readings (one each minute)
5. even with the cover, avoid having direct sunlight hit the bulb when experiment is occurring, and keep all boxes consistent in orientation.
6. enter data into Excel when done

While you are recording the temperature, continue to work on the following items to your lab notebook:
6. Conditions (independent variables) for whole class

7. Data table (your group's)
8. Copy of class data (will be emailed)
9. Excel plotted graph of class data (see instructions in Excel doc)
10. Answers to analysis questions (see HW below)

Faculty Workday - Interims

Read Earth, Mars, and Venus Compared from George Philander's Is the Temperature Rising.PDF
Understand the following:
1. What the continuous curve in Figure 3.1 shows.
2. Why the concept of equilibrium is significant in determining how much heat the earth radiates.
3. What the open circles in Figure 3.1 represent, and why they are below the continuous curve.
4. What the black dots (or solid circles) in Figure 3.1 represent, and why they are above the continuous curve.
5. What the length of the dotted lines between the open and closed circles in Figure 3.1 represent.
6. The significance of Earth's atmosphere in maintaining a stable 15 degrees Celsius.
7. What percent of Earth's atmosphere is CO2, and how many ppm that is.

Read 512-520 (Stop at Melting ice and snow...)
Understand the following:
1. What proxy indicators are, why we must rely on them when we study climate change, and examples of them. (NOAA Paleoclimatology Site)
2. Why the EPICA ice team was intersted in measuring the ratio of deuterium isotopes to normal hydrogen in the ice cores
3. What the air bubbles in the ice cores revealed. Note the highest concentration that was recorded in the core. Compare that to the current concentration in the atmosphere.
4. What the EPICA scientists still trying to find an explanation for from the data they collected.
5. What information the Keeling curve shows.
6. What climate models do, and what Figures 18.11a, b, and c show.
7. What the IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report included in it. What do the footnotes correspond to in Figure 18.12.
8. Note the major predictions made about earth's climate by the IPCC from pages 518-520.

Climate Change Evidence - NASA Site

Do this assignment for Friday

Print out Data table from email and place in lab notebook
Graph Data on Excel and Print out the Graph(see instructions in excel file)
Answer the following Analysis Questions

1. Describe what happens to a visible light photon when it hits an absorptive surface vs a reflective surface.
2. Describe what happens to a visible light photon when it reaches a transparency, and what happens to an infrared photon when it reaches a transparency.
3. Consider the box as a system, and that energy enters and leaves the box system.
a) Explain why the temperature did not change in the first 3 minutes.
b) Explain why the temperature changed once it was taken outside.
c) Explain why the temperature eventually stabilized again?
d) What would have happened if we had taken it back inside and monitored the temperature for another 20 minutes? Why?
4. Identify a scenario on Earth (or another planet) that each of these boxes model (with the exception of the reflective exterior and the absorptive exterior), and explain why they do so.

Do this assignment for Monday

Read 520-529
Understand the following:
1. Evidence that ice and snow are melting, and the concerns with that.
2. What findings about melting ice was absent from the IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report?
3. What outlet glaciers and moulins are, and why they are significant.
4. What Rignot and Kanagaratnam discovered about Greenland's ice sheet.
5. How positive feedback is related to the melting of ice, snow, and permafrost.
6. Why people living in coastal areas are particularly concerned about climate change, and what options they have. (Locally, what concern do we in the Bay area have about this?)
7. How climate change is impacting the oceans.
8. How it is impacting species other than humans.
9. An early argument by skeptics of climate change was that vegetation will grow more with more CO2 in the atmosphere. Why this is not as simple as it sounds.
10. In what ways climate change is expected to impact agriculture, forestry, public health, and economics.
11. What the USGCRP report showed, and how politics played into its release.
12. How the IPCC report affected the acceptance of the perception that climate change is human caused (at least at the time the book was written).
New seats

Discuss Results
Relate to Earth with no pane vs one pane pHET Simulation
Hand in Lab
(Chloe, Laura, Emily, Sarah, Haley - meet at Lunch)

Video clip - CO2 and IR
Resonance Model

Dynamic Equilibrium Bottle Demo - Revisit
Relation to Energy Budget
Solar radiation sheet
Simplified to more complex

Explain what the following elements/actions from the bottle demo represent in the Earth system.

Bookbits - connection to climate change
Uncertainty inherent in modeling
Skeptics exploit this

PG Chapter on Earth's Climate - Site
FAQs Answered by the IPCC about Climate Chage - Site
Earth's Energy Budget Animation
Earth's Radiant Energy Balance Site

Discuss HW

Antarctica Map
Vostok Ice Core Site
EPICA Ice Core Deuterium Data

Deuterium ice core data plotted with CO2, CH4, NO2 data - Graph
Determining temperature from isotopic ratios of deuterium
Temperature (deg-C) = -55.5 + (?D + 440) / 6

WAIS Ice Core Site
Global Climate Change
- NASA Site

Explain the features of the Keeling curve to a classmate
Direct measurement - Mauna Loa CO2 Measurement Site
Keeling curve
(how do present day concentrations compare to the historical record)
A Carbon Tide - Interactive

CO2 Emissions by Sector and Fuel Type Diagram

Positive feedback and its effects on dynamic equilibrium

Methane Release in Siberian Arctic Article


EPA Expected to Regulate CO2 - NYT Article (Last year)
Recent News: Republicans to block legislation giving EPA the right to regulate CO2 emissions - NYT Article (Feb, 2011)

Hand in FRQ Responses

Return and read over grading rubrics

Finish last HW from Chapter 18
Pacala and Socolow Wedge Diagrams

If time - Systems are dynamic - Activity

List of Countries by CO2 Emissions - Wiki

Climate Interactive - International Climate Change Simulation Site
(-80, not 80)

The Climate Scoreboard Site

Effects of increase in global atmospheric temperature
Alan Betts - Atm Research Site - Water cycle and climate change
Coral Bleaching Site

Green economy article - Paul Krugman - NYT

Look over revised simulation results

Ambient Air Pollution Handout

Discuss HW

Methane bubbles

Hunting for Methane - Video

Later, do next year?
Greenhouse gas Lab

Did not do 2011-12
John P. Holdren - Science Advisor to President Obama -
on emails from East Anglia Video (start at 40 sec)

Climate Disruption Lecture - PDF (Slides 6-30)
Winners and Losers in a Changing Climate Image
Blogging Heads - Orr and Manzi Video

Stabilization Triangle Video
Climate Game Gives Real Options to Save the World NPR Story

EPA CO2 Emissions from Fuels Site
Calculate your CO2 Emissions using this page Calculator

Other Resources:

Climate Change Lessons
Artifical trees article
Climate Change and Evolution Article

The Distracting Debate Over Climate Certainty - NYT Article
Signs of Damage to Public Trust in Climate Findings - NYT Article
NYT Article on East Anglia e-mail Controversey

Belief or Disbelief in Climate Change - NPR Story

Naomi Oreskes, author of Merchants of Doubt - Answering Climate Change Skeptics Lecture
(16:40 - Counterpoints to 2 Arguments by Skeptics, 27:50 - Marshall Institute, doubt mongering, and the nature of science)
Skeptical Science Site

Climate Change in the Media Case Study
Climate Change Site
Climate Science from Climate Scientists - - Site

Read 529-536
Understand the following:
1. What mitigation and adaption mean, and why mitigation is more important.
2. Two ways we can reduce fossil fuels usage, and examples of each.
3. What the second largest source of greenhouse gas emissions are, the efficiency of automobiles, the potential for them to become more efficient, and the role that public transportation can play.
4. How Pacala and Socolow suggest we should approach reducing CO2 emissions, and the strategies they suggest to keep C emissions at 7 billions of tons per year (try to remember 7 of them).
5. What the FCCC was, and what happened afterwards.
6. What the Kyoto protocol originally mandated of nations, and why the U.S. refused to ratify it.
7. What U.S. state and local governments did in response to it.
8. How cap-and-trade and carbon-offsets are supposed to work, and the problems associated with them.

Work on both FRQs handed out in class (spend 20 minutes on each one - try to do them without your book)


Finish the Analysis Questions for the Forio Sim
Read "As Permafrost Thaws, Scientists Study the Risks"
- NYT Story - Dec, 2011
Understand the following:
1. How the permafrost was formed and what it is composed of.
2. What happens when it thaws, and why it is a concern.
3. How the warming of the permafrost is part of a positive feedback mechanism.
4. How the presence or absence of oxygen affects the kind of decomposition that occurs.
5. How thermokarst lakes form.
6. Why fires are increasing in frequency in Alaska.

Study for Test on Chapters 17 and 18

April 2

Test on Chapters 17 and 18

Math fundamentals for energy problems
(scientific notation, operations (* and /) with scientific notation, unit conversion (RR tracks), percentages)

Unit 9 - Energy - Fossil Fuels,
and Energy Alternatives

Discuss HW from book

How is electricity made
Oersted Interactive
Oersted Interactive2

Lorentz Force Animation
Electric Motor Animation
Lenz's Law Animation
Electric Generator Animation
How a Generator Works Explanation1

Coal Fired Power Plant Diagram
Coal Fired Power Plant Animation
Coal Fired Power Plant Animation2 (Australia)
Conventional Power Plant vs Power Plant with Cogeneration Animation

Cogeneration (Combined Heat and Power)
Cornell CHP Plant Image
EPA CHP Diagram

1:25 - Mining for Gold Activity
Make calculations and graph data

2:00 - Return/Discuss Tests
No Class


Read pages 541-549
Understand the following:
1. What the US NPR-A, the 1972 oil development, the Trans-Alaska Pipeline, the 1002 area, and ANWR are, and the controversy that has unfolded.

2. What the different sources of energy are from Table 19.1, and ultimately, which ones do (directly or indirectly) and do not depend on energy from the sun.
3. What fossil fuels are, the advantages of using them, and how they are used.
4. What makes certain fuel sources renewable and others non-renewable, and how you would classify each fuel type.
5. The steps involved in fossil fuel formation, and the significance of anaerobic conditions.
6. Where the largest reserves of fossil fuels are in the world, and how it compares to where consumption is largest.
Oil Map
NYT Map of the Oil World
7. What industrialized and developing nations use their energy on, and why there is a difference.
8. The concept of EROI, and what the ratios mean.
9. The conditions that are required for coal form under.
Coal Formation Animation
Coal Formation Animation2
Coal Formation Animation3
10. How electricity is generated, how clean coal technologies are being used to reduce pollution, and how much electricity is produced by coal combustion in the US.
11. The processes used for removing coal from underground.
12. How compression and salinity can impact coal content, and how coal combustion can impact ecosystems.

Alaksa Pipeline Site

Sample Chapter on Energy Use Link
Energy Production and Energy Use (and Waste) - Site
Coal Mining Video and Images

Read 549-555 (including the science behind the story, but stop at "We may already have depleted half our oil reserves")
Understand the following:
1. What natural gas is composed of, and how biogenic and thermogenic gas are formed.
2. What coalbed methane is, and the danger is poses to mine workers (WVa Coal Mine Explosion Story April 6th, 2010, WSJ)
3. Why natural gas is favored over coal and oil as an energy source.
4. How natural gas used to be extracted, and what techniques are used to removed nearly exhausted reserves.
5. Why hurricane Katrina disrupted oil and gas supplies.
6. What crude oil is, how it forms, how it is discovered, and how it is drilled. (Oil Formation and Discovery Animation)
7. How a company determines whether it is worthwhile to drill for oil, and what proven recoverable reserve means.
8. How fractional distillation works (Fractional Distillation Animation (scroll down)), and what cracking and catalytic reforming do (Octane Wiki
Octane Ratings Wiki).

Other Resources:
API Oil and NG Site
API Processing Natural Gas Site
Natural Gas Pipeline Network Maps
Crude Oil Refining Site
Oil Clock Site
Nothing assigned here, BUT will finish chapter 19 over the break, finish the "Mining for Gold" Activity, and do some calculations with your families PG&E Bill

If next week is busy, may want to jump ahead to get 1 or 2 assignments done
Spring Break, but see assignments below - AP-ES exam is on Monday, May 7th
Chapter 19 - PDF (for Mon and Thurs assignments this week)

Read 554-562
Understand the following:
1. What the R/P ratio is used to do?
2. The concept of Hubbert's peak and what the latest data predicts about "peak oil." (Hubbert Wiki)
3. The sort of scenarios that might play out as demand outpaces supply, and how we can address this concern.
4. What oil sands, oil shale, and methane hydrate are, and what their downsides are.
(Optional Resouces:
Oil Sands Wiki
Oil Sands Mining and the Environment Discussion (Promotional, but informative) Video
Horizontal Oil Shale Drilling (again, promotional, but informative) Animation
USGS Report on Methane Hydrates Site
Methane Clathrate Wiki)
5. The various problems associated with burning fossil fuels.
6. How coal mining impacts the environment.
60 Minutes Episode on Coal Ash from Oct 4th, 2009)
7. How oil and gas drilling impact the environment.

Other Resources:
April 26th, 2009 60 Minutes Episode - Powered by Coal

Finish the "Mining for Gold" Activity

1) Calculate the "Mining Cost per Nugget" for the column on the "Mining for Gold" Activity

2) Note the largest value in the "Mining Cost per Nugget" column, and use it to create a scale on the right side of the graph

3) Plot the "Total Nuggets Mined" data with one symbol, and the "Mining Cost per Nugget" with another.

4) Answer the analysis questions on the last page
  Read 562-568
Understand the following:
1. What the oil embargo of 1973 was, the impact that it had on the U.S., and what it illustrated.
2. How the U.S. responded to the oil embargo.
3. The different impacts that fossil fuel reserves have had on residents in Alaska and in Nigeria.
4. The concept of energy conservation, and why many of the initiatives put in place after the oil embargo of 1973 were since abandoned.
5. What CAFE Standards are, and how they have changed/not changed.
6. Why European gas prices are so much more expensive.
7. The impact that oil extraction from ANWR will have in fulfilling US oil demand.
8. What the simplest route to energy conservation is, the areas that would benefit most from increasing energy efficiency, and how the increased efficiency could be achieved.
Using your family's monthly PG&E bill (concern yourself with the electricity part of your bill only - not gas), answer the questions from this PDF

Information to help you calculate 3, 8, 9, and 10:
Average monthly electricity usage per U.S. household - 920 kWh (Compare to #3)
U.S. Population - 313,310,000 (FYI, it was 311,000,000 last year in 2011)(For #8)
Total U.S. electricity consumption - 3.906*10^12 kWh (Compare to #8)
Total global electricity consumption - 17.444*10^12 kWh (Compare to #9)
World Population - 7,005,000,000 (FYI, it was 6,900,000,000 last year in 2011) (For #10)


Grab Handouts (Notes, CHP, EIA Diagrams)

Discuss HW
Discuss/Collect Mining for Gold

Test next week (Tues) on Chapters 19 and 20

Peak Oil and Hubbert's Peak
Oil Clock Site
US Oil Reserves Graph
US Oil Production vs Imports Graph
Peak Oil Wiki
Association for the study of Peak Oil Site
Peak Oil

Oil Prices and World Events Site

Reserve to Production Ratio Wiki (Estimate/Actual) years
RPR for Oil Map
Historical Graph of RPR for Oil
RPR for NG Map
Historical Graph of RPR for NG

Fossil Fuels

Hydrocarbons (CnH2n+2)

Incomplete decomposition of organic matter under anaerobic conditions
Coal - terrestrial plants
Natural Gas - sea plants and animals
Oil - sea plants and animals

(Energy Flow Graphs)
Coal - electricity generation (Pie Chart) (33% efficient), industry
Oil - transportation
Natural Gas - electricity generation (50% efficiency), industry, residential
PG&E 2009 Power Mix Pie Chart

Coal Mining 60 Minutes - 2007 - Video
Coal Mining Video and Images
Oil and Natural Gas - Drilling and Extraction
Exploration and Production of Oil - Site
Extracting Natural Gas from Rock - NYTInteractive
Hydraulic Fracturing Animation
Tap Water on Fire - Video
Fracking Explained - Video

Coal - nothing more
API Processing Natural Gas Site
Refining Oil (Includes Distillation and Cracking) - Site
Fractional Distillation Interactive

Problems with Extraction
WVa Coal Mine Explosion Story April 6th, 2010, WSJ
BP Oil Spill Image
Garbage down the well - Image
BP Coffee Spill Comedy Sketch

Coal - railroad (Mining and Transportation Site)
Coal Hopper Picture
Coal Train Video

Natural Gas - pipeline (Pipeline Network Maps)
Maritime Choke Points - Map

Issues with transportation/use
San Bruno neighborhood post explosion - Image
Section of blown NG pipeline from San Bruno explosion - Image
Cosco Busan Image
60 Minutes Episode on Coal Ash from Oct 4th, 2009)

Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROEI)

Finish Fossil Fuel Notes
(Refer to yesterday for some links)
(Then finish notes)

Discuss Last Ch 19 HW
Discuss/Collect PG&E bill assignment (assigned last Friday)

If time, discuss Ch 20 HW

"How Green Are Electric Cars?" NYT Article, April 13th, 2012

Remaining Notes to Mention on EIA Handout

Discuss Last Ch 19 HW

Electric Energy Consumption Worksheet - pointers

US and World Electricity Consumption -Table
How Electricity is used in U.S. Homes - Table

Do 2 Energy FRQ Problems (Ch 19 related) and 3 using math (Ch 18 related), but not about energy

Discuss scoring guidelines

If time, discuss first Ch 20 HW

Day of Silence (2012)

Nuclear Reactor Animation

Discuss HWs from Chapter 20

Nuclear Decay Fundamentals Notes
Nuclear Forces Image
Decay Series of U-238 Image
Nuclear Fission Animation
U-235 Wiki (with energy content of fission products)
Nuclear Chain Reaction Animation (Controlled vs Uncontrolled)

1) 1 g of uranium produces as much energy as 3 tons of coal
2) Electricity baseload
3) Once running, few emissions

1) Accidents
2) Waste
3) Proliferation

Nuclear Radiation and Health Notes
Effects Site (World Nuclear Industry)
Radiation Dose Chart

Units of Radiation Exposure
Sievert (Sv) = ratio of the radiation energy (Joules) to the total mass exposed (kg)
Rontgen (rem) = 0.01 Sv
1 alpha particle is 20 times more severe than 1 beta particle or gamma ray

Share effects of exposure chart (from PDF and site)

General impact of radiation

Fission fragments and their impacts

The Big Energy Gamble NOVA Documentary (Includes Nuclear Segment) - Video

Other information:
MIT-NSE blog
Radioactive Waste Disposal Movie (with eerie music)
DOE Movie on Yucca Rail Line
Yucca Mountain - The Making of an Underground Laboratory Movie
Chernobyl Wiki
Nuclear Radiation and Health Effects Site
Radiation Dose Chart
Health Effects of Chernobyl Accident W.H.O. Site
Nuclear Power Risk Site
Edging Back to Nuclear Power Article (NYT, April 21st, 2010)
Green America's Response to Nuclear Article

Chapter 20 PDF (PDF includes reading for remaining assignments this week)

Read 573-581 (Read the Science Behind the Story, but stop at "Chernobyl saw..."
Understand the following:
1. The arguments for and against nuclear power mentioned in the introduction.
2. What the three conventional alternatives to fossil fuels covered in this chapter are, and how much the U.S. and the world depend upon them.
3. What nuclear energy and nuclear fission are, and what happens in nuclear reactors.
Fission animation (with explanation)
4. How radioactive decay works, what uranium enrichment refers to, and the role that fuel rods, control rods, and containment buildings play in a reactor.
5. What happens in a breeder reactor, and the pros and cons of one of these is.
6. What nuclear fusion is, why it is attractive, and what kind of results it has yielded.
7. What the IAEA did in their study on the carbon emissions of acquiring and using different fossil fuels, and the results that it yielded.
8. What happened at Three-Mile Island, and what would have made the accident worse?

NPR Story - Megatons to Megawatts
USEC Site - MT to MW
A Good Documentary
CA's Big Energy Gamble - NOVA.


Read 581-588
Understand the following:
1. What happened in Chernobyl.
2. Why thyroid cancer rates increased, and how most of the patients got it.
3. How the radiation spread across Europe.
4. Why there are national security concerns about nuclear power.
5. Why nuclear waste disposal is an issue.
6. The difference between wet and dry storage, and why the two kinds of storage are needed.
7. What Yucca is, why it was chosen, and what opponents argue.
8. Why nuclear power has not grown quickly.

Other resources:
Radiation Dose Chart

  Read 588-598
Understand the following:
1. What biomass energy is, and why fossil fuels are not considered biomass energy.
2. The three ways that biomass energy can be used (see Table 20.2).
3. At what point the catagorization of biomass as a renewable resource changes.
4. What ethanol is derived from, why it may not be a sustainable type of biofuel, and why the production of cellulosic ethanol might make it more feasible.
5. What biodiesel is, and how its emissions compare to petrodiesel.
6. What biopower is defined as, and the different ways it can be generated.
7. What the benefits of biomass energy are.
8. What the drawbacks of biomass energy are.
What the storage and run of river approaches to hydropower are, and why power companies might favor the former over the latter.
10. The advantages of hydropower over fossil fuels.
11. The disadvantages of hydropower.
12. Why hydropower is not likely to expand much further.

Other Resources:
Using Algae as an Oil Source to Make Biodiesel Wiki

Do MCQ's from Course Description and the Math portion of the Ch 18 math FRQs
Finish the Electricity Calculation from the PG&E Bill assigned over break (see email for Mr. Vann's information if you cannot get to yours)


Finish Nuclear Notes - Health Effects

Renewable Energy Consumption - Diagram

Hydroelectric Dam Animation

(Ethanol, Biodiesel)
Versus Fossil Fuels
Fuel Chemistry Site

How biodiesel/ethanol are ma
Issues with biodiesel/ethanol production/use

Other notable biomass energies

Making Biodiesel Video
Better Biofuels through Evolution Article
Shake Music
Fuel Efficiency Wiki (with energy content of fuel table)
Solazyme Site

Gasification Wiki

Test on Chapers 19 and 20

Make Biodiesel - Day 1

Science Behind Biodiesel

Discuss HW from Ch 21

New Alternatives - Solar, wind, hydrogen, geothermal, ocean

Renewable Energy Consumption - Diagram

PV Solar - Notes

Return/Discuss Tests
(QMU#4, next week - Ashley, Nick, Nicole, Iman, Tahryn)
Petroleum - oil and ng (but not coal)
Source of coal vs source of petroleum


Continue Biodiesel - Day 2

Science of Silicon Solar Cell - Movie
PV Cell Applet and Tutorial
HRS Solar Panel Monitor

HRS solar array calculation

Solar Thermal
EIA Solar Thermal Site
Parabolic Trough Solar Wiki
Sandia National Labs - Site

Limitations of Solar
Cost, Space, Clouds, Night

Demand Response Curve
Dispatching Wind and Solar Slideshow
PHS, Thermal, CAES

Solar and Wind Calcualtions

Extra Quantitative (Quantitative Questions form Raven and Berg Site)

Study for Test on Chapters 19 and 20

Read 603-609
Undestand the following

1. Why the text refers to the alternative sources of energy in this chapter as "new," and what those energy sources are.
2. How much of the global energy is actually obtained from new renewable energy sources, and what the majority is obtained from.
3. Why an economy benefits from having a mix of energy sources.
4. Why it will be necessary for the government to encourage corporations to shift to an economy that is less fossil fuel based.
5. The difference between passive and active solar.
6. How concentrating solar energy with mirrors has been used.
7. What PV cells are, and how they work.
PV Cell Diagram
USDOE Site on Solar Electric Systems

  Read 609-616
Understand the following:
1. Why support for solar declined, even after the 1973 oil embargo.
2. What has contributed to the recent increase in the use of PV cells.
3. The advantages of using solar.
4. The drawbacks of solar, but also the progress that has been made in terms of cost and efficiency.
5. The relationship between wind velocity and power output of a wind turbine.
How Much Power is in the Wind Site
6. Why water is a better site for a wind turbine than on land.
7. The advantages of wind turbines.
8. The downsides to wind power, and how NIMBY relates.
Other Resources:
Renewable Energy Heats Up in the Mojave NPR Story

Read 617-625
Understand the following:
1. How geothermal energy works, its benefits, and what some of its disadvantages are.
2. The different ways that energy can be harnessed from the oceans.
3. The void that hydrogen would fill that the other renewables covered in this chapter would not, and its relationship to intermittent sources of 1Aenergy.
4. How a fuel cell works.
5. The significance of sulfur in the photosynthetic reactions of C. reinhardtii, what hydrogenase is, what Melis did in his experiment, and what they discovered. (Melis Bio Site)
6. How electrolysis works, and why its benefit hinges on its source of electricity.
7. The benefit and drawback of using methane as a hydrogen source.
8. The benefits of hydrogen as a fuel source. 

Discuss Ch 21 HWs

Storing excess electricity - Yale, 2009 Article
Batteries (flow, Li-ion, vehicle to grid)
Capacitors (cannot hold charge for as long as batteries) Graphic
Split H2O to make H2 (expensive) Image
Compressed air storage (in caverns) - Description/Image

Wind - KE=1/2mv^2
P=(change in E)/time - which results in v^3

Wind and Solar Calculations

CA Cap and Trade Article

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Animation

Biodiesel Lab
(Next year, compare to diesel, and do outside)


Take Practice AP-ES exam

Unit 10 - Waste Management and Sustainable Solutions

Teacher Evaluation

Return/discuss work

IWTG Forms - Will sign after I get your test folder, 2008 practice exam, book, and any missing work

Potential FRQs? - Mr. Vann's hypotheses:
1. Design an experiment (been a few years)
2. Current event influences? (BP oil spill and cleanup, Fukushima Daiichi)

Life Cycle Analysis - Cradle to Grave
Paper or Plastic - Tutorial
Paper or Plastic - Comparison Article

Life Cycle Analysis Site
3 and a half pound microchip - Article

Landfill construction Animation

Incineration Animation

Environmental Benefits from Recycling Calculator
Recycling Facts Site

Battery Recycling - Site
Lead Recycling from Car Batteries - Video

Plastic Recycling Symbols Site
Plastic Recycling Misconceptions Site
Plant Green Plastics Symbols Article
Oakland Public Works Site
Berkeley Residential Recycling Site
"Dont' Recycle That Plastic" East Bay Express Article, Dec, 2008

EDF Paper Calculator
EDF FAQs on Benefits of Recycling Paper

Other Resources
Wasted TV Series Site

RCRA EPA Summary

Edward Humes Interview - Author of Garbology - on Fresh Air
7 lbs/person a day
102 tons in a lifetime

Greenpeace: What's in electronic devices Site
Cadmium - found in NiCd batteries

Green Technology - NOVA Teacher Resources
(addresses Chapter 23 - sustainable solutions)
Read 630-636
Understand the following:
1. What municipal, industrial, and hazardous waste are.
2. How reducing waste can save money and resources.
3. The three components of waste management, and the concept of the waste stream.
4. How the cost of waste disposal, affluence, infrastructure, and plastic have contributed to the trends in developed and developing nations.
5. The history behind how waste was managed in the U.S.
6. How a sanitary landfill is designed, and what the RCRA is.
Read 636-644
Understand the following:
1. What Rathje discovered in his research on landfills.
3. The pros and cons of incineration.
NYT Article Exploring Energy Production from Incineration - Article
4. How consumer choice can impact how much waste is generated.
5. The three components of sustainable recycling.
6. The economic reasons behind the growth of recycling, and why advocates of recycling think that alone should not be the driving force.
7. The impact that bottle bills have had on recycling.

Read 645-653
Understand the following:
1. How the regulation of municipal solid waste differs from the regulation of industrial solid waste.
2. How the difference in physical efficiency and economic efficiency impacts the amount of industrial waste generated.
3. What industrial ecology and life-cycle analyses are and entail.
4. The ZERI brewing process.
5. How the EPA defines hazardous waste.
6. What the TCLP is, and what Townsend discovered about e-waste.
7. What the RCRA requires of large producers of hazardous waste, and the kinds of actions that the high cost of disposing the waste can lead to.
8. The three methods of disposing of hazardous waste, and how they work.
9. What CERCLA did.
10. What Superfund sites and brownfields are.

Study for AP Exam

AP-ES Review Session
Sunday from 1pm to 4pm here at school

Recent events that an FRQ might be based off of (BP Oil Spill and Clean-up, Fukushima)

8:00 AM - 2012 AP-ES Exam

After exam - emember to hand in, and no talking about exam with teacher.
1. Textbook
2. Complete Test Folder
3. 2008 Exam
4. Any Missing Work


 Waste Audit
Measure in kg (=1000 g)
So 1 g = 0.001 kg
10 N = 1 kg
So 3 N = 0.3 kg
Finish by 8:50

Wind Turbine Animation
Geothermal Animation
Solar Concentrator Animation
Stirling Engine Animation

Solar Kit Lessons Site 
Solar Decathalon Movie

Nissan Leaf

Energy Visualization Site

Energy Pros and Cons Site
Energy Development Wiki

Solar Cell Activities Video
How Many Lightbulbs Video

First Offshore Wind Farm in the US Approved - NYT Article - April 28th, 2010
How much more will this provide? - Refer to slide print out

Gulf Oil Slick NYTimes Article

Glenn Rosazza's eBoard Site

  Future Generations and Economic Activities Abstract
Discount Rate Activities
NOAA Site on Restoration Economics
Stern Review Wiki
NYT Article about Stern Review
Ethics of Discount Rate Abstract
Env Econ Blog
Economics of Climate Change EPA Site
June 1
        Yearbook Assembly
        Awards Assembly
Ch 13
Pair up, read pages 1-5 (Arabic #s, not Roman #s) of this PDF on Sustainable Urban Design, and answer the following:
1. What does urban sustainability mean?
2. To what factors do "urban scholars attribute contemporary urban form," and what impact did these have on human perception?
3. Why did cities of the 17th and 18th centuries form where and grow as they did, and what was their primary function?
4. How did US policy affect development in the 19th century? Why were rivers and canals so significant? How did people get around within the city, and what form did some cities begin to take?
5. What impact did the steam engine have on the location and development of cities?
6. What impacts did fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas) have on the development of urban centers?
7. What factors contributed to the beginnings of suburbanization?
8. What impact did the automobile have on the location of business and industry, and what effect did this have on the economy and on the layout of the city?
9. How did the U.S. Department of Commerce address the issue of congestion? How did this contribute to "racial and economic segregation"?
10. What significant policies and incentives accelerated "urban decentralization and suburban development"?
11. Why is this sort of growth not sustainable energy-wise, and what other negative impacts does it have on the environment?

Read Sections 2 and 3 (pages 7-15) "Sustainable Urban Design" that you read in class on Wednesday, and be able to answer the following
1. Summarize the evidence that "suggest a more compact urban form...would result in the consumption of far fewer material and energy resources."
2. Briefly summarize the challenges and solutions to sustainable development proposed by each of the nine teams who participated in the study.

Chapter 13 - Relevant concepts and Figures (urban vs rural populations in developed and developing countries (Figure 13.1 - pg 359), UGB - urban growth boundary (357, and Fig 13.2 - pg 360), Examples of sprawl (Figure 13.4), Examples of Low Density Housing (Figure 13.5), City planning and zoning (Figures 13.6 and 13.7), Energy consumption and costs of transportation (Figure 13.10)

Ch 15

Questions to Layperson's Guide to California Water - PDF
1. What are the basic issues facing California's water supply? Why?
2. How has the state tried to remedy the problem?
3. How is population growth working against the desires of environmental groups and wildlife biologists?
The Resource
4. Where does the 193 million acre-feet of precipitation per year go?
5. How do the mountain ranges in CA affect precipitation?
6. How much water can be stored in the state's surface water reservoirs, and how much groundwater can be economically used?
7. What is the significance of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta to CA's water supply?
Early Development
8. What did the 49ers (gold miners) use water for, and what impact did this have on downstream waterways?
9. What did the farmers that settled in the Delta do to it, and why did they do it?
10. What was happening to the groundwater levels in the more arid areas of the state?
11. What did the different "Irrigation Acts" do?
Water Rights
12. What was the difference between pueblo right and riparian right? What were appropriate rights, and how did they arise?
13. What did Article X of the state constitution require, and what did it mean?
The Projects
14. What were the pros and cons of the development of CA's surface water projects?
First Projects
15. Who was Mullholland, and what was his role in the growth of LA?
16. What did LA do to protect its water rights to the Owen's river?
17. What finally happened in 1991?
18. How did San Francisco ensure that they had enough of a water supply, and why was there controversy?

IGNORE ASSIGNMENT BELOW (need to make time for Field Trip Preparation Assignments)
Read "A Moveable Feast" from Bay Nature about the Upwelling that Occurs off of the Northern California Coast PDF
Answer the following:
1. What series of events occur after an ocean upwelling off of the CA coast?
2. How do we know that these upwellings are not a recent phenomenon?
3. What is the name of the weather system that produces the winds that cause the upwelling, and what time of year is it the strongest?
4. How have animals adapted to the timing of these upwellings?
5. What is El Nino, and how does it affect upwelling?
6. What unusual event occurred in 2005, and how did that impact the animals dependent on upwellings?
7. Why is global climate change brought up as a concern in the article? How are Cassin's auklets related to this?